A primary antibody is an immunoglobulin that specifically binds to a particular protein or other biomolecule of research interest for the purpose of purifying or detecting and measuring it. Primary antibodies are developed as polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies using mouse, rat, rabbit, goat, and other animal species as hosts. They are produced and supplied in various forms, ranging from crude antiserum to antigen-purified preparations. Primary antibodies for frequently researched targets are also available conjugated to fluorescent dyes or biotin.
The Invitrogen antibody portfolio is expanding—see the latest additions
We are continuously updating our Invitrogen primary antibody portfolio with advanced verified products for use in flow cytometry, IHC/IF/ICC, western blotting, ELISA, and other applications. Check out our latest antibody highlights:
Loading control antibodies for more consistent western blot experiments
Loading control antibodies are crucial in western blot experiments. Loading controls are proteins that are expressed at similar levels in all cells, and assessing their presence helps to ensure consistency in experiments and confirm that similar amounts of lysate were loaded across the gel. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved molecular chaperones that are expressed in all cells of all organisms—they play an important role in folding and unfolding of proteins. HSPs comprise of a large family of proteins that are named based on their molecular mass (e.g., HSP60, HSP70, HSP90). HSPs serve as good loading control targets, owing to their ubiquitous protein expression patterns.
HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 were detected across multiple cell and tissue samples and have both human and mouse reactivity. Western blot analysis was performed on whole-cell extracts (30 μg lysate protein) of the indicated cell lines or tissue extracts of mouse and rat brain. Blots were probed with (A) HSP60 Polyclonal Antibody (Cat. No. PA5-34760), (B) HSPA1A Polyclonal Antibody (Cat. No. PA5-34772), or (C) HSP90 Monoclonal Antibody (H90-10) (Cat. No. MA1-10892). Chemiluminescent detection was performed using Pierce ECL Western Blotting Substrate (Cat. No. 32106) and the iBright FL1500 Imaging System (Cat. No. A44115).
Featured primary antibodies categories
Learn about our thousands of mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, and other species of monoclonal primary antibodies.
Learn about our thousands of rabbit, goat, sheep, chicken, and other species of polyclonal primary antibodies.
Our broad portfolio of antibody conjugates—including Alexa Fluor dye and eFluor dye conjugates—is designed to help you answer complex cell biology questions, in less time and with less sample than other approaches.
Learn about our Invitrogen ABfinity rabbit monoclonal antibodies, developed by immunizing animals, screening for functionality, and then cloning the genes into high-level mammalian expression vectors.
Select a cell marker, organelle marker, or subcellular component antibody to identify and outline cellular structures and organelles by detecting proteins that are specific to them.
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For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.